The Hydroelectric Energy rig demonstrates the basic principle of the conversion of kinetic energy of flowing water into electrical energy, via the rotation of a turbine (Pelton wheel) connected to an electric generator.
The Hydroelectric Energy rig consists of a large lower water tank and a small upper water tank. There are two water pumps: pump 1 lifts water from the lower to the upper tank, to replenish the water level; pump 2, which forces water into a water flow pipe, has a variable rate control, operated by the user. The water level of the upper tank is monitored and a low water level activates water pump 1. The water flow pipe is equipped with inline gauges to measure water flow rate and water pressure. When pump 2 is activated, a jet of water flows onto the cups of a Pelton turbine wheel. The rotation rate of the Pelton wheel is linked to the water flow rate. The Pelton wheel turbine is contiguous with an electromagnetic generator and these two components manifest an identical rotation rate. The electrical output of the generator is passed to a set of light-emitting diodes, which can act as either digital monitors of the power output of the generator or as loads for the output circuit of the generator.